The History of Republic Airport

1. Farmingdale’s Aviation Origins:

Located in Farmingdale, Long Island, Republic Airport is an historically significant airfield to the region and the world, having played both military and civilian roles. But long before it became an airfield, it gave rise to the manufacturers that built airplanes.

“The Industrial Revolution and airplane manufacture came to Farmingdale during World War I when Lawrence Sperry and Sydney Breese established their pioneering factories in the community,” wrote Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas in their book, Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale (Arcadia Publishing, 2016, p. 9). “They were drawn by the presence of two branches of the Long Island Railroad… the nearby Route 24, which brought auto and truck traffic to and from the Fifty-Ninth Street Bridge in Manhattan; the level outwash plain, which provided land for flying fields; and the proximity to skilled workers… “

The area’s first aviation roots, however, were planted as far back as 1917. The Lawrence Sperry Airplane Company, incorporated that year with $50,000 of capital and located on Rose and Richard streets in the village of Farmingdale, produced its first aircraft in the form of the Messenger.

Designed by Alfred Verville of the US Army’s Engineering Division at McCook Field, the minuscule, 17.9-foot-long, all-wood biplane was intended for “aerial motorcycle” missions, alighting in small clearings to drop off and pick-up messages from field commanders, thus earning its name. Farmingdale’s aviation roots were equally cultivated by Sydney Breese, whose Breese Aircraft Company, located on Eastern Parkway, designed the Penguin. Resembling the Bleriot XI, the mid-wing airplane, powered by a two-cylinder, 28-hp, roughly-running Lawrence engine, was a non-flying, preflight trainer intended to aid US Army pilot transition from primary to operational types. Deployed on the open prairies of Texas, it sported a wingspan too short to produce lift, but allowed fledgling aviators to gain the feel of pre-departure aerodynamic forces on their horizontal tails. Of the 301 produced, only five were ever used for this purpose; the remainder were placed in storage.

2. Fairchild Aviation Corporation:

If Lawrence Sperry and Sydney Breese laid Farmingdale’s aviation foundation, then Sherman M. Fairchild cemented it.

Initially interested in aerial photography equipment, he founded the Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation in 1920, selling two such devices to the Army, and further developed the company into Fairchild Aerial Surveys to engage in map-making when he had received a contract for an additional 20.

Seeking to replace the myriad of airplane types he operated with a single, specifically- designed camera platform, Fairchild devised the required specifications for one, but could not locate a manufacturer able to build it at a reasonable cost. Forced to do so himself, he established his third aviation company, the Fairchild Aviation Corporation, and moved into the Sperry factory in South Farmingdale, vacated as a result of founder Sperry’s tragic death in December of 1923.

The high-wing, strut-braced, single-engine utility aircraft, designated FC-1 and first flying in prototype form in 1926, featured an enclosed and heated cabin to protect the pilot and his camera equipment, but its original OX-5 engine proved inadequate. Retrofitted with a higher-capacity Wright J-4, it was redesignated FC-1A.

The FC-2 production version, supported by wheels, floats, or skis, featured increased cabin volume. Powered by a 200-hp Wright J-5, the aircraft, intended for commercial operations, sported a 31-foot overall length and 44-foot wingspan. Accommodating a single pilot and four passengers, or up to 820 pounds of cargo, it had a 3,400-pound gross weight and could attain maximum, 122-mph speeds and operate 700-mile segments.

Demand at the South Farmingdale factory soon eclipsed capacity. After aerially surveying the region, Fairchild himself chose a 77,967-acre alternate on the south side of Route 24 and Conklin Street in East Farmingdale, a site which offered prevailing, South Shore winds and multiple-mode ground access by means of a railroad line and the major, Route 110 corridor, which would facilitate both personnel and raw material transport to the new field. Repackaged into airplanes, the latter could then fly out.

“The 77,967-acre Fairchild Flying Field was developed in the late winter and early spring of 1928 and was originally owned and operated by the Fairchild Engine and Airplane Manufacturing Company,” according to the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society. “The first flights from (it) took place in (the) late spring of 1928 after the Fairchild Airplane and the Fairchild Engine factories were completed and aircraft were produced (there). Fairchild built Model 41, 41A, 42, 21, 100, and 150 airplanes… “

Wings, like those of the Hempstead Plains to the west, once again rose from the farm fields of Long Island, built, propelled, and supported, respectively, by the Fairchild Airplane Factory, the Fairchild Engine Factory, and the Fairchild Flying Field, after Faircam Realty, Inc., purchased the land and its initial layout was established on November 3, 1927.

Although Fairchild produced multiple models at its new Long Island aviation center, its roots would quickly prove tenuous. Moving its headquarters to Hagerstown, Maryland, in 1931, after only three years, it vacated its facilities, which were almost immediately reoccupied by the American Corporation, or AVCO, whose Airplane and Engine divisions produced the Pilgrim 100 transport for American Airways. But the Depression, taking too large a bite out of the economy, severely diminished demand for it, since aircraft acquisitions were high on a company’s cost reduction list, and its presence proved shorter than Fairchild’s. By mid-1932, it had equally disappeared.

3. Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation:

Initially located in Valley Stream, where it designed floats, the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation moved further east, to the Fairchild Flying Field, and took up residence in the former Fulton Truck Factory, where it hatched its first production fighter, the FF-1. Powered by a single, 750-hp Wright engine, the biplane, with a retractable undercarriage, was also offered in scout configuration, as the SF-1.

The most significant aircraft to emerge from the East Farmingdale production line, however, was the Duck. Tracing its origins to the Loening Aeronautical Engineering Corporation’s XO2L-1, it had been submitted to the US Navy in 1931, but, since Loening himself lacked the required facilities to build it, he turned to Leroy Grumman, his former colleague, who re-submitted it in modified form. Accepted on April 25, 1933, the biplane, called XJF-1, was powered by a 700-hp Twin Wasp engine, which drove a three-bladed Hamilton Standard propeller. Its bracing, consisting of one set of struts outboard of the fuselage and a second one, of wires, between the two wings, was minimal for its day. Water operations were supported by a centerline, under-fuselage float, into which the undercarriage retracted.

In all, 632 JF and J2F Ducks were produced, pressed into global, multiple-role service.

Although Grumman’s Farmingdale presence exceeded that of all others, it nevertheless ended after a half-decade, in 1937, when it relocated to larger headquarters in Bethpage, Long Island.

4. Seversky Aircraft Corporation:

Seversky Aircraft Corporation next took center stage in Farmingdale when it relocated there from College Point in Queens, occupying the former American Corporation factory.

A decorated World War I ace, Alexander P. de Seversky, like Igor Sikorsky, immigrated to the US from Russia, and in 1923, developed the first gyroscopically-stabilized bombsight at the Sperry Gyroscope Company, before establishing his own Seversky Aero Corporation, which focused on aircraft instruments and parts.

Injected with fresh capital, it initially occupied the EDO Corporation’s floatplane factory.

His first major design, the SEV-3, was both aerodynamically sleek and progressive, reflecting Seversky’s aviation-intuitive nature. Powered by a single, 420-hp, nose-mounted, Wright J-6 Whirlwind engine, the all-metal, low-wing aircraft, accommodating a pilot and two passengers in sliding, tandem canopied cockpits, was either supported by a wheeled undercarriage or floats, and in 1933 established a world speed record for piston amphibians. Two years later, on September 15, it sustained a 230-mph airspeed.

The foundation of many subsequent versions, which externally exhibited only minor variations over the basic design, it evolved into the next major iteration, the BT-8. As the first all-metal, enclosed cockpit design operated by the US Army Air Corps, it featured a 24.4-foot length and 36-foot wingspan. Powered by the 400-hp Pratt and Whitney R-985-11, the 4,050-pound airplane, accommodating two, had a 175-mph maximum speed. Thirty were built. It led to the definitive version.

Originally occupying Hangar 2 on New Highway and today used by the American Airpower Museum, Seversky Aircraft Corporation took over the Grumman factory in 1937 when it had relocated to Bethpage, thus maintaining two facilities. But, echoing the short history of the East Farmingdale airfield’s tenants, it came to an abrupt end: although Seversky, like many other aviation-minded “geniuses,” possessed the necessary design skills to create progressive airplanes, he lacked the necessary managerial flip-side of the equation needed to devise a proper, and profitable, business plan to market them, resulting in a $550,000 loss by April of 1939. While conducting a European sales tour six months later, on October 13, he was ousted by his own board of directors, who voted for his removal from the very company he had founded.

Reorganized, it was rebranded “Republic Aviation Corporation.”

5. Republic Aviation Corporation:

Fairchild Flying Field’s fortune was about to change. Fueled by World War II, the fledgling Republic Aviation Corporation would explode in size and its roots would become so deeply implanted in Farmingdale soil that it would be decades before they could be unearthed.

Instrumental in that war was the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt.

Succeeding the Seversky P-35, it was the result of Army Air Corps requirements, which included a 400-mph airspeed, a 25,000-foot service ceiling, at least six.50-caliber machine guns, armor plating protection, self-sealing fuel tanks, and a minimum fuel capacity of 315 gallons.

The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, which dwarfed all other aircraft, was the world’s largest, heaviest, single-engine, single-seat strategic World War II fighter, offering unequaled dive speeds.

War-fed growth of the officially-renamed “Republic Airport” resulted in the expansion of the company’s existing factory on the south side of Conklin Street, as well as the construction of three additional buildings, the installation of a control tower, and the lengthening of its existing runways, all in an effort to support P-47 production, which totaled 9,087 units in Farmingdale alone and required a work force of 24,000 to accomplish by 1944. Employees filtered in by the thousands every day. A round-the-clock production line spat a completed aircraft out of the factory every hour, and these were then ferried by the Women Air Force Service Pilots, or WASPs. Republic Aviation, one of the country’s primary defense arteries, pumped man-and-machine into the agricultural plains of Farmingdale and transformed them into an arsenal of democracy within an 18-month period.

“By 1945, Republic was contributing more than 30 percent of the Army Air Force fighters to the war effort against the Luftwaffe in the skies of Europe,” wrote Leroy E. Douglas in his “Conklin Street Cut-Off” article published in the September 1984 issue of Long Island Forum (p. 182). “Thus, Republic, Ranger, and its 23,000 plus workers-more than half of whom were women-did their part to win the war.”

When World War II’s doors closed, so, too, did those of the Thunderbolt factory, and Republic was forced to diversify its product range in terms of purpose and powerplant, converting military Douglas C-54 Skymasters into commercial DC-4 airliners, producing 1,059 civilian Seabee amphibian aircraft, and attempting to design a passenger transport of its own.

The resultant aircraft, the Republic XF-12 Rainbow–along with the competing, and identically-powered, Hughes XF-11–both received a contract for two.

Emulating the graceful lines of the Lockheed Constellation, the Rainbow, featuring a 93.9-foot overall length and incorporating design experience amassed during Republic’s fighter aircraft development, exuded an appearance quintessentially captured by Aviation Week and Space Technology magazine when it reported, “The sharp nose and cylindrical cigar shape of the XF-12 fulfills a designer’s dream of a no-compromise design with aerodynamic considerations.”

Peace proved the aircraft’s enemy. The close of World War II obviated its (and the comparable Hughes XF-11′s) need. Nevertheless, because of its long-range, high-speed and -altitude, day and night, limited-visibility photo-reconnaissance capability, it was ideal as a territory-mapping platform. Indeed, on September 1, 1948, the second of only two aircraft built photographed its transcontinental flight path from the Air Force Flight Test Center in Muroc, California, to Mitchell Field in Garden City, Long Island, during Operation Birds Eye.

Returning to its military roots, Republic entered the pure-jet era with a P-47 Thunderbolt successor.

Featuring a 37.5-foot length, the design, conceived shortly before the end of the war in 1944, retained the straight wings associated with propeller airplanes. These spanned 36.5 feet.

First flying on February 28, 1946, the 19,689-pound fighter-bomber, designated F-84 Thunderjet and able to climb at 4,210-fpm, established a national speed record of 611 mph, as powered by the 3,750-thrust-pound J35-GE-7. Its range was 1,282 miles and its service ceiling was 40,750 feet. Its production totaled 4,455 units.

Development of its successor began in 1949. Because of an Air Force funding shortage, Republic reduced development costs by retaining commonality, to the tune of 60 percent, with the F-84, but introduced swept wings. The aircraft, powered by a 4,200 thrust-pound Allison XJ35-A-25 engine and initially designated YF-96A, first flew on June 3 of the following year, three months before it was renamed F-84F Thunderstreak.

Korean War-sparked fund increases enabled Republic to complete a second prototype, which first flew on February 14, 1951 with a YJ65-W-1 engine, and it was followed by the first production example, which took to the skies on November 22, 1952. The type was deployed by NATO countries during the Cold War.

F-84F Thunderstreak production totaled 2,713 airplanes.

Nevertheless, Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas summarized Republic-based aircraft manufacturing by stating in their book, Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale (pp. 7-8). “While aviation started in Farmingdale with cloth-covered triplanes and biplanes and prop engines, after World War II Republic helped moved the United States into the jet age with the F-84 and F-84F, which assisted US forces in Korea and NATO nations in the 1950s.”

6. Fairchild Republic Corporation

Although Fairchild departed the very airport it had created in 1931, that absence was short-lived. Reappearing three years later, it took up residence in its former engine factory as the newly formed Ranger Aircraft and Engine Corporation and remained there until 1948. But, for a second time, history was to come full cycle.

Acquiring Hiller Helicopters nine years later, it became Fairchild Hiller, and in July of 1965, it purchased the majority of Republic stock, resulting in the Republic Aviation Division of Fairchild Hiller. Fairchild had thus returned to the soil in which it had planted its first seeds. In 1971, it continued its buying spree, purchasing Swearingen and producing and marketing the 19-passenger, twin-turboprop Fairchild-Swearingen Metro commuter airliner. The following year, the company adopted the official title of “Fairchild Republic.”

Its principle design, conceptualized before the Republic acquisition, was given birth by the Air Force requirement for a close air support aircraft incorporating simplicity, ease of maintenance, and short-field performance, in order to operate from small forward air bases close to the battle line.

Designated A-10 Thunderbolt II and enjoying a production run of 733, it was instrumental in the Gulf War and during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

7. Post-War Manufacturing:

Although Republic Airport and its aviation companies had been associated with mostly-military aircraft design and manufacture, several diverse commercial and space components also emerged from its doors.

Integral to the Boeing 747, for instance, were the leading edge slats, trailing edge flaps, spoilers, and ailerons built by the Republic Aviation division of Fairchild Hiller, while it was also contracted to provide a similar role in its proposed, but canceled, supersonic 2707 airliner.

Equally integral to the Space Shuttle were the Fairchild Republic components manufactured in Farmingdale.

After awarded a $13 million contract by Rockwell International of Los Angeles on March 29, 1973, Fairchild Hiller designed and developed six aluminum vertical tail stabilizers, which sported 45-degree leading edges and measured 27 feet high by 22 feet long, in Hangar 17, along with their associated rudders and speedbrakes. The first, installed on test vehicle Enterprise, facilitated its atmospheric launch from a piggy-backed 747 platform over Edwards Air Force Base on February 18, 1977, while the others were mounted on Space Shuttles Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavor.

Expanding the commuter airliner involvement initiated with the Swearingen Metro, Fairchild Republic signed an agreement with Saab-Scania of Sweden on January 25, 1980 to launch the SF-340, in what became the first fully collaborative venture between a US and European aviation manufacturer. Fairchild Republic was contracted to design and build its wings, engine nacelles, and vertical and horizontal tail surfaces, with final assembly occurring in Sweden.

Fairchild Swearingen was assigned North American marketing responsibility, while a jointly owned Swedish company, Saab-Fairchild HB, established an office in Paris to fulfill this function elsewhere.

Powered by twin turboprop engines, the aircraft accommodated 34 passengers in a four-abreast configuration with a central aisle.

After completing some 100 wing sets, however, Fairchild terminated its contract work on the regional airliner, withdrawing from all civil projects, and the aircraft was redesignated the Saab 340.

8. Changing Roles:

Passed the ownership torch on March 31, 1969, Republic Airport was thereinafter operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), which continued to transform it into a public-use entity by acquiring 94 adjacent acres from the US government and purchasing an additional 115 privately owned ones to the south and southwest.

“The Metropolitan Transportation Authority took title to Republic Airport as a first step in converting it into a general aviation (field),” according to the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society.

Initiating a modernization program, it made several improvements. High-intensity lights were installed on 5,516-foot Runway 1-19 and 6,827-foot Runway 14-32, for example, the latter of which was also equipped with an instrument landing system (ILS). The Fulton Truck Factory, the airport’s original structure dating from 1916, was razed, while Flightways transformed a ten-acre site on the north side of Route 109 into a complex of new hangars, administration buildings, fuel storage tanks, and aircraft tie-downs. A dual-level Administration, Terminal, and Maintenance building opened in 1983, not far from, and shortly before, the operational phase-in of a 100-foot, $2.2 million FAA control tower.

In order to promote economic development of the surrounding region, New York State legislature transferred ownership, for a third time, to the New York State Department of Transportation (DOT) on April 1, 1983, which was advised by a nine-member Republic Airport Commission. It hardly curtailed the modernization momentum.

Indeed, eight years later, a $3.5 million, 25,600-square-foot Grumman Corporate Hangar, replacing the aircraft storage facility previously maintained at its now-closed Bethpage airfield and housing a Beechcraft King Air, a Gulfstream I, and two British Aerospace BAe-125-800s, opened.

In April of 1993, ground was broken for a $3.3 million, 20,000-square-foot SUNY Farmingdale Aerospace Education Center on the east side of Route 110.

Million Air, a subsidiary of Executive Air Support, constructed an 11,700-square-foot Executive Air Terminal and corporate hangar on the airport’s south end, and, by 2001, Air East commenced operations in its own, new, radiant-heated, 10,000-square-foot hangar, which also featured a 2,500-square-foot shop and 4,500-square-foot office and flight school. Yet another hangar-and-office complex, located in the Lambert area, opened its doors in June of 2005 when Talon Air, a charter company, began operations from it.

In order to provide increased clearance needed by the latest-generation of business jets, such as the Gulfstream V and the Bombardier Global Express, taxiway B (bravo) was relocated.

Indeed, more than $18 million in capital improvements were made since 2000 alone.

These enhancements, provisioning the airport for its new, general aviation role, had perhaps been a premonition of things to come.

In 1982, Fairchild Republic won a contract to build two new-generation Air Force T-46A training jets; but, the milestone, initially envisioned as a monetary lifeline, only provided the reverse effect: although the prototype was first rolled out three years later, it lacked some 1,200 parts, and although the second made a successful, 24-minute maiden flight in July of 1986, the contract for the program, fraught with controversy, was canceled, resulting in the layoffs of 500 employees.

Like so many companies dependent upon military contracts for survival, Fairchild Republic, without choice, ceased to exist the following year, leaving its sprouting factories and a legacy, which had begun six decades earlier. Ironically, the two names which had been the most instrumental in the airport’s beginning and growth-Fairchild and Republic-were the same two which had been involved in its demise. The doors of the Farmingdale airfield’s primarily-military aircraft manufacturing and testing chapter thus closed, and those to its general aviation one opened.

“With the company experiencing major financial problems in 1986-1987 and with the loss of support for the T-46A program in Congress, Fairchild terminated both the SF-340 and T-46A production after building only four aircraft,” according to Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas in Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale (p. 99). “Thus, by the fall of 1987, seventy years of airplane manufacturing in Farmingdale ended with employment and economic loss to the community and the New York metropolitan area.”

9. Airline Service:

In 1966, a year after ownership of Republic Airport was transferred from Fairchild Hiller to Farmingdale Corporation, it was officially designated a general aviation (civil) facility, fielding its first landing, of a twin-engine Beechcraft operated by Ramey Air Service from Islip, on December 7. In order to transform it into a gateway by facilitating airline connections at the three major New York airports, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority contracted with Air Spur to provide this feeder service four years later, assessing $12 one-way fares.

Although Republic was never envisioned as a major commercial airport, its central Long island location, proximity to the Route 110 corridor, and considerable infrastructure poised it for limited, scheduled and charter service to key business and leisure destinations within neighboring states. Yet its inherent operational limitation was succinctly stated in the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update.

“At Republic Airport,” it explained (Chapter 3, p. 8), “the New York State Department of Transportation implemented an aircraft weight limitation of 60,000 pounds in 1984. This weight limitation restricts the operation of aircraft over 60,000 pounds actual gross weight without the written consent of the airport operator.”

“Forecasts indicate that there will be an increase in the number of jet aircraft based at Republic Airport,” the Master Plan Update stated, “as well as an increase in jet operations,” as ultimately proven by annual pure-jet operation statistics: 2,792 in fiscal year 1986, 4,056 in 1990, 4,976 in 1995, and 6,916 in 1998. And, of its average annual number of based aircraft-about 500-this segment was also the fastest growing: 10 jet aircraft in 1985, 15 in 1995, and 20 in 1998. That number has since more than doubled.

One of the first scheduled airline attempts was made in 1978 when Cosmopolitan Airlines, operating an ex-Finnair Convair CV-340 and two ex-Swissair CV-440 Metropolitans in single-class, four-abreast, configurations, offered all-inclusive, single-day, scheduled charter packages to Atlantic City from its Cosmopolitan Sky Center. Its flyer had advised: “Fly to Atlantic City for only $19.95 net. Here’s how it works: Pay $44.95 for a round-trip flight ticket to Atlantic City, including ground transportation to and from the Claridge Hotel and Casino. Upon arrival at the Claridge, you’ll receive $20.00 in food and beverage credits good at any restaurant except the London Pavilion. You will also receive a $5.00 flight credit good for your next fight to the Claridge on Cosmopolitan Airlines.”

The carrier also briefly attempted to offer two daily scheduled round-trips to Boston on its 52-passenger CV-440s in 1980.

Facilitating this scheduled service growth was the construction of a passenger terminal.

“The terminal building, completed in 1983, has approximately 50,000 square feet of useable floor space and houses airport service vehicles, maintenance, fire protection, public terminal space, and rental areas on the first floor, plus administration offices on the second floor. Approximately 70 employees work in the building,” according to the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update (Chapter 1, p. 17).

Attempting to establish a link between Farmingdale and the major New York metropolitan airport of Newark International in order to feed its departures, PBA Provincetown Boston Airline commenced shuttle service with Cessna C-402 commuter aircraft, connecting Long Island by means of a 30-minute aerial hop with up to five daily round-trips and coordinating schedules with PEOPLExpress Airlines. It advertised avoidance of the excessive drive-times, parking costs, and longer check-in requirements otherwise associated with larger-airport usage, and offered the convenience of through-fares, ticketing, and baggage check to any PEOPLExpress final destination.

According to its June 20, 1986 Northern System timetable, it offered Farmingdale departures at 0700, 0950, 1200, 1445, and 1755.

Demand soon necessitated replacement of the C-402 with a larger, 19-seat Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante.

All of these brief, unsuccessful scheduled attempts, nullifying local residents’ ill-founded concern that Republic would ultimately develop into a major commercial airport and inflict its noise on close-proximity ears, failed to attract the needed traffic to render them self-supporting, emphasizing several airport-specific factors.

1). Republic was consistently associated with general, and not scheduled, operations during the latter part of its history.

2). Long Island MacArthur had already established itself as the island’s principle commercial facility, and carriers, as demonstrated by Precision/Northwest Airlink, gained no revenue advantage by diluting the same market, yet incurring increased airport and operational costs to do so.

“Republic Airport has had service by various commuter airlines and each has ceased service… ,” according to the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update. “The commuter service market area is limited, geographically, taking into account the larger airports, such as La Guardia, Kennedy, and MacArthur and the service they offer.”

“Since 1969, Republic Airport has accommodated the region’s need for an airport devoted to private and business aircraft, as well as charter and commuter operations,” it also stated (Chapter 1, p. 1). “Because Republic is situated in the midst of residential, commercial, and industrial development, its role is inconsistent with that of a scheduled air carrier airport for commercial jet transport.”

With the number of annual passengers having consistently increased-from 13,748 in 1985 and 30,564 in 1990 to 33,854 in 1995-its future commuter role could not be entirely ruled out.

“While past efforts by commuter airlines have not been successful, the potential for future service exists and is to be considered in the planning for the airport,” it concluded (Chapter 2, p. 10).

10. The Future:

Unlike Roosevelt and Glenn Curtiss fields, which succumbed to modern-era pressures and swapped their runways for shopping malls, 526-acre Republic only surrendered a small portion of itself to the Airport Plaza Shopping Center. Instrumental in early-aviation development and in the Korean, Vietnam, Gulf, and Iraq wars, it transformed itself into a general aviation facility, peaking with 546-based aircraft and becoming the third-largest New York airport in terms of movements after JFK International and La Guardia.

Billing itself as “the corporate airbridge for Long Island’s 21st-century economy,” this westernmost Long Island general aviation facility accounts for 1,370 jobs and $139.6 million of economic activity, supporting 60 on-airport businesses. The 110,974 movements recorded in 2008 encompassed 52 by non-rigid airships, 7,120 by rotary wing, 76,236 by single-engine pistons, 6,310 by twin-engine pistons, 5,028 by turboprops, and 16,228 by pure-jets. The latter, its second-highest total, emphasizes its increasing role as the “Teterboro of Long Island,” perhaps pointing the way to its future. Indeed, companies considering the area for their corporate locations cite the airport as a major asset, since it provides close-proximity aerial access for personnel and materials.

Toward that end, the State of New York approved funding in April of 2009 for a Vision Planning process to collect data from residents, employees, businesses, and users, and then plot its future course. Specifically, the program had a three-fold purpose-namely, to define the airport’s role, to determine how it will fill that role, and, finally, to ascertain how it will work with the community to attain the desired operational and economic goals.

“As part of the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS), Republic Airport is designated as a reliever airport with commercial service,” according to the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update (Chapter 1, p. 1). “Under ownership by the New York State Department of Transportation, there are specific state development and policy procedures which are followed.”

Although it may never eclipse its current general aviation role, its importance was not to be underestimated.

“”Republic Airport is an important regional asset,” it stated (Chapter 1, p. 1). “It provides significant transportation and economic benefits to both Suffolk and Nassau counties. The policy of the New York State Department of Transportation and the Republic Airport Commission shall be that Republic Airport continue to better serve Long Island.”

Whatever the future holds for it, it has a nine-decade foundation upon which to base it, as acknowledged by the plaque hung in the passenger terminal by the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society, “honor(ing) the tens of thousands of men and women who labored here in East Farmingdale, contributing significantly to aviation technology and aircraft production.” Those men and woman turned the wheels of the 11 aviation companies based there.

Sources

Long Island Republic Airport Historical Society website.

Neubeck, Ken, and Douglas, Leroy E. Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2016.

2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update, New York State Department of Transportation.

Compartmentalized Federal Bureaucracy: Ongoing Breeding Grounds for Conspiracy & Treachery

Unknown to most of the literate adult Americans of the 21st Century, U.S. Government bureaucracies have, since around 1934, been deliberately created and structured to support covert, illegal, and diabolical unconstitutional operations. How is this so? Well, think of a specific government agency, one of the 1,550 currently existing federal regulatory agencies, commissions, and administrations, as you would a huge chest of draws, comprising a hundred different draws within it. Every drawer is deliberately isolated from every other drawer to contain specifically different items. Likewise, federal government agencies are comprised of many different departments, or drawers, each having its own subdivision of smaller drawers, which are also separate and distinct from each other. Government agencies are usually created to function in a fashion that does not promote cogent oversight. As to why this so, you will see a bit further in this article. For instance, let’s take the CIA for example. The independently autonomous Central intelligence Agency is comprised of, at least, 300 different operational departments, each department having, at least, 100 sub-divisions, or sections. Each one of those sub-divided sections is divided into even smaller sections. Each of these agency subdivisions, or sections, contains at least 100 employees, or operatives, who have specific autonomous functions as assigned by their designated section leaders. So, realistically, a government agency, such as the CIA, could contain as many as 50,000 operatives (and assets, or men and women around the world who are not official employees of the CIA, but are secretly paid to perform special assignments) working in 5,000 sections, 100 operatives to a section, and Congress, who actually created the CIA, has no real knowledge of these operational sections. The National Security Agency (NSA) is nearly three times the size of the CIA in operational bureaucratic size, which, of course, creates even more alienation between departments, sections, and sub-sections, where the right-hand of the bureaucratic body does not know what left-hand is doing. Scary, huh? Moreover, when the bureaucratic body has many sections and subsections (or hands), the many right hands ordinarily don’t know what the many left hands are doing. This makes the planning and orchestration of conspiracies (covert unsanctioned illegal paramilitary operations) pretty easy to accomplish.

Compartmentalization, a 20th Century term originally created by U.S. Army Gen. Leslie Groves, who managed the WWII Manhattan Project, is the crux of U.S. bureaucratic organization. In order for security to have been tightly micromanaged during the time the first atomic bomb was being created and assembled in the remote New Mexico desert, Groves ensured that the various departments of the Manhattan Project were insulated from each other. This meant that one department didn’t know what another department was actually doing. From 1934 until 1939, Groves had taken a great deal of personal time to study the German Nazi bureaucracy quite well, and had realized just how effectively it worked to keep the flow of information to the German civil servants very limited. It is quite surprising how many officers of the U.S. military, like Groves, personally endorsed the pro-Nazi views of Charles Lindbergh, sympathetic to Hitler, during the years prior to 1941. Groves was a confirmed pragmatist and, after 1942, realized that if he could regulate the specific work done in each subsection of the Manhattan Project to ensure that no subsection knew what another subsection was doing, he could securely manage the composition output of the overall project. Essentially, Groves was a hypocrite, a walking contradiction, personally believing in Nazi fascism, but following orders to deliver an atomic bomb. As long as each of his Manhattan Project subsections completed its objective, as an integral component of the whole atomic bomb, the project was securely engaged. I have no idea if Groves realized, or even surmised, what the Nazis were actually planning as their “final solution,” which incorporated the Holocaust. Yet, the long-term success of the Nazi final solution was due to the effective working of the Nazi bureaucracy, the thousands of German civil servants (who were not members of the Nazi Party) who performed the paperwork, construction, and transportation needed for the disposition of the millions of Jews who were murdered in the death camps. The Nazis compartmentalized all of their bureaucratic operations that were necessary for the completion and operation of the austere final solution.

So let’s depict a believable scenario for the creation and orchestration of an underhanded federal conspiracy in the convoluted bureaucracies of the U.S. government, a conspiracy to kill a lot of innocent people in order to successfully create the public perception of an attack on the American nation and to successfully blame the attack on an unwitting scapegoat in order to perpetuate an endless military and paramilitary “war” against that scapegoat. Let’s say that the director of the Council on Foreign Relation, a federal quasi-governmental bureaucracy within itself, organized to determine U.S. foreign policy, which maintains a large staff of federal employees hired by the U.S. military, the CIA, the NSA, the DIA, and the FBI in fifteen different locations in the USA and around the world, calls an organizational meeting with the presiding CFR CIA section-chief about a proposed operation. The CFR Director instructs the CIA section-chief that he, or she, is to plan, within a two-year timeframe, for the complete destruction of three large skyscrapers in New York City, and that the blame for the destruction is to be placed on Muslim terrorists. The political object of this Machiavellian machination would be the eventual control, by federal government privateers, of Middle-Eastern oil and the expanded social, economic, and political control over the American people in furtherance of one-world government and the United Nations Agenda 21.

The CIA section chief responds to the CFR Director with a dutiful aye, aye, sir, and immediately calls a secret meeting of all the integral federal officers who will be responsible for key parts of the overall conspiracy. One of these individuals is the main CIA liaison with federal contractors in top-secret aircraft construction projects. Now remember that CIA sections and subsections are isolated from each other on a need-to-know basis. So this liaison officer is told by the CIA section chief to arrange for the top-secret construction of two jet drones the size and shape of Boeing 767 commercial jet airliners, and for specialized avionic guidance systems for each of the drones, over a period of two years. Then the section chief instructs another person at the meeting, the CIA liaison officer with NIST (the National Institute of Standards and Technology), to arrange for the two tallest skyscrapers in New York City, and a third smaller 47-story building, to be secretly prepped, over a two-year period, with military-grade nano-thermite for remote controlled demolition. This particular long-term conspiracy, and its component operations, will be tacitly confirmed and approved by the new incoming neoconservative Republican presidential administration in January 2000, which will be allowed, through a manipulated presidential election, to assume the federal Executive branch. The new presidential administration, under the actual direction of the vice-president, will covertly fall in-line with the orders given by the Council on Foreign Relations. Since all funding for the component parts of the conspiracy will be provided through accounts managed and controlled by the Council on Foreign Relations and secret accounts held by CIA/NSA/DIA owned corporate interests (the CIA, NSA, and DIA own and operate their own corporations around the world), no federal tax appropriations from Congress will be utilized in the operations of the conspiracy. The federal aircraft contractors who will build the jet drones within the two-year timeframe will use “apparent funds” that will be promised to the contacting companies by the CIA liaison, but will never actually be received by the contractors. In other words, the contractors will unknowingly use their own funding to build the drones expecting reimbursement payment by the federal government, which will actually never come. The top-secret, highly classified, arrangements were to be routinely accepted by the contracting companies because such arrangements were standard operating procedures and had been established and used on many previous contracts made through the CIA.

Does this detailed scenario sound strangely familiar, much like something that really happened sixteen years ago, which was actually blamed by the U.S. government on Islamic terrorists; such as 9/11? Well, that’s exactly what I have described! Except, it’s not at all what the federal government said it was in its mythic book of fiction published in 2004, the “Report of the 9/11 Commission.” Hence, let me continue with the unfolding scenario. Two years come and go, and the WTC Twin Towers are prepped for controlled demolition by work crews during day and nighttime hours, during times when the Towers were “supposedly” undergoing elevator repairs and were essentially vacant. Another skyscraper, the Solomon Building, or Building 7, was also covertly prepped with explosives. Building 7 was to be the control-point for operations on 9/11, since the CIA had operational offices in the Solomon Building.

Now the logistical methodology for making the American public think, and perceive, that the commercial Boeing 767 airliners, American Airlines Flight 11, United Airlines Flight 175, and American Airlines Flight 77, Boeing 757, supposedly hijacked by Islamic terrorists, crashed into the Twin Towers and the Pentagon on the morning of 9/11, making them totally collapse in a manner identical to controlled demolition, was tragically diabolical and ruthless, but, nonetheless, pragmatically efficient. You see, the American Airline flights that “supposedly” crashed into Towers 1 and 2, and the into the Pentagon, were actual flights that met that their doom elsewhere in the USA at prearranged times when the empty and windowless jet drones, almost identical to Boeing 767s, were flown into the Towers by remote control. United Airlines Flight 93, a real Boeing 757, was actually flown to some undisclosed location, landed, and the passengers killed, murdered. Remember the alleged crash of Flight 93 into a field near Somerset, Pennsylvania on 9/11? No aircraft fuselage or engine component wreckage was recovered from that crash, which was scientifically impossible. Even if a jet aircraft, the size of a Boeing 757, is flown into the ground in a dive from a high altitude, the 10 tons of steel and titanium engine components don’t just vaporize. A great deal of wreckage would remain. It takes a fire and heat of over 2,300 degrees to melt steel and titanium, and much greater heat than that to vaporize such a large amount of such metal. Kerosene jet fuel will only produce a fire with a temperature of less that 800 degrees. The federal government used some other high-detonation weapon to create that large hole in the ground.

Furthermore, the alleged cell phone messages sent and received by the alleged passengers, supposedly depicting hijacking scenarios, were cleverly contrived by the conspirators to appear real and genuine to the American public. The conspirators had enough time and technological resources to make this subterfuge believably happen. In order to tie-up all of the lose-ends of the conspiracy, all of the numerous federal contractors and employees who had specific knowledge of the plans and details of the secretly constructed drones, and who played any other unwitting part in the planning of the conspiracy over the two year period, were individually scheduled, ticketed, and assembled, in mass, on one of those four rerouted commercial flights, and murdered at an undisclosed location where the aircraft was flown during the daytime hours on 9/11. The pragmatic murders of all of the unfortunate passengers on those airliners were committed by paramilitary agents of the U.S. government at undisclosed locations, and their bodies were immediately incinerated.

Yet, not even the most intricately planned conspiracy unfolds without, at least, one, or more, noticeable flaws. On September 11, 2001, a fast arriving CNN news crew responded to the alleged crash of American Airlines Flight 77 into the Pentagon wall. The original video news clip of the CNN reporter appeared on national television in front of the Pentagon wall where, supposedly, the large Boeing 757 had flown into the wall at 400 miles per hour. The reporter was clearly puzzled by the obvious fact, shown in the video, that “there appeared to be no evidence of an airliner crashing into the wall.” The grassy ground in front of the wall was totally undisturbed, and federal workers were seen in the background carrying away small pieces of what looked like some other type of smaller aircraft fuselage. Then the CNN broadcast was suddenly cut from view, disappeared, and its content not mentioned again by CNN or any other news affiliate. This was the first publicly viewed flaw. Thank God that the short-lived news-clip was recorded on DVRs around the nation and later made into a U-tube video on the Internet. The second flaw was the mainstream media’s federally manipulated failed attempt to persuade the many scientifically-minded American people watching the collapses of the WTC Twin Towers on national television that the crashes of the jet drones flown into the steel super-structures, and the ensuing fires, caused the two super-towers to collapse into their tracks at free-fall speed in a manner identical to controlled demolition. The third flaw comprised the lies publicly told by federal NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) on, and after, 9/11 that the many reports of the 9/11 first-responders of loud secondary explosions heard in the minutes preceding the collapse of both Towers, and that large pools of molten steel were seen by the responders after the collapse, were false. You see, secondary explosions, precisely triggered detonations, are always necessary for remote demolition to properly occur with tall buildings, and in order for the super-steel structures to have been collapsed by controlled demolition with the use of secondary explosive detonations, a super heat producing explosive, military-grade nano-thermite, was used to melt the super-steel construction at its various connected stages in order to produce the free-fall collapse that occurred. Moreover, traces of nano-thermite were abundantly discovered in the ash and debris emanating into the air, and onto the ground, from the rubble of the collapsed towers.

The intricacies of the convoluted layers of federal government bureaucracy are so very disparate in their comprehensive construction and maintenance that describing their operation involves massive and morally unreasonable contradiction, contradiction that the reasonable American would find much too unreasonable to accept. The acquired ability of federal agencies, supposedly created and authorized by Congress, to secretly mutate and metastasize into smaller agencies, administrations, and consortiums without the knowledge of Congress, in order to conduct illegal unsanctioned activities, is the primary means to insidious conspiratorial ends. The men and women who publicly speak and act like honest and decent public servants, but secretly go about in dark illicit circles as ravenous wolves, seeking the demise of constitutional government and the American republic, are the key players in these conspiracies. Awful things can happen when misplaced public trust is wrongfully reposed in the faceless people of amorphous federal agencies, who pragmatically and remorselessly pursue conspiratorial agendas to the detriment of the American people. It is not a matter of determining “if” it can be done, but, rather, a matter of ferreting-out, by federal and State law enforcement, how and when it was done, who the murderous conspirators were that did it, and indicting, trying, and convicting those heinous murderers to the executed deaths that they rightfully deserve.